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Communication Today: An Overview from Online Journalism to Applied Philosophy

Online ISBN 978-615-80340-6-7
Volume 4 (September 2016)
Pages 1-349
Edited by Maria Micle and Claudiu Mesaroş


Chapter I. Communication, Journalism and Public Relations, Library Studies

Citizen and/versus Main Stream Journalism? Aspects Concerning Digital Communication Today
Author(s): Ștefana-Oana Ciortea-Neamțiu, Lucian-Vasile Szabo

Media communication is under the pressure of democratization today. It is characterized by preserving some elements from mainstream (or old) media while it evolves under the pressure of new technologies, innovative models of institutional management, the process of creation and diffusion of information, news and entertainment products. The content of communication is marked by interactivity and the pressure of non-professionals (nevertheless, some of them very skilled) on classical media institutions. Citizen journalism has complex forms and a clear impact on traditional media. This paper focuses on the dynamic relationship between the old (mainstream) media and citizen journalism.

The Serbian Daily Press on the Greek Crisis
Author(s): Laura Spariosu

The aim of this paper is to research how Serbian daily newspapers inform on Greek crisis. The intention of the author is to analyse texts about this issue published in the online edition of daily newspapers Večernje novosti (nontabloid), Blic (semitabloid) and Kurir (tabloid), in the period from the 1st to the 15thof July 2015, according to a code list issued for journalistic text analysis that refers to: text length, journalistic genre, text authorship, cause of reporting, visual presentation, location, topic, subject, object, value context and headlines. The paper will question how the selected media present the event and what are the similarities and differences in the researched topic.

Political, Administrative and Social Life in the Current Romanian Mass Media. The Fire from the Colectiv Club
Author(s): Ioana Vid, Anamaria Filimon-Benea

We live in an era of information, when we want to know everything happening around us and to be aware of all kinds of public and personal information. The source which provides this information is mass media, whether it is online or in print, radio, or television. We can argue that television is the most important source of information. The aim of this paper is to analyze the content of agenda setting for the main news stations and the national television channels regarding topics related to administration, politics and the social scene.

The Definition of the Press in the Polish Press Law and its Impact on the Functioning of Local Online Media
Author(s): Jakub Parnes

This article aims to provide evidence that the lack of accurate principles of the application of the Polish Press Law Act (PLA) provisions to online media is a threat to the pluralism of the local communication systems in Poland. The first part of the paper is concerned with the status of online media in Poland in the context of the current PLA. The second part of the article presents the cases of the local officials attempting to use the ambiguous legal status of the local online media to block critical opinions published. The third part of the paper contains the analysis of the recently-tabled proposals concerning the amendment of the PLA.

Pragmatic Approaches in the Analysis of the Political Discourse
Author(s): Bianca Drămnescu

Pragmatics in discourse analysis plays a decisive role in the creation of effective political communication strategies. Therefore, speech lies at the junction of rhetoric, linguistics and politics. This study focuses on characterizing the main approaches in pragmatic discourse analysis based on a comparative analysis of studies by international specialists. The intension in communication represents a pragmatic element which plays a decisive role at the time for the communication process. Speech is a central point of interest for social and political spheres. Conceptions about language in association with pragmatics turn the usual rhetoric into a speech activity coordinated by normative linguistic dimensions.

Measuring the Quality and Impact of Scientific Information. Scientometry Research Using the Web of Science in the Field of Ethics in Medical Recovery
Author(s): Angela Repanovici, Andra Manuela Botez, Marius Stoianovici, Nadinne Roman

The study of communication processes in science, the assessment of excellence in research, and quality of research are all issues which pose rising interests to governments, research institutions, universities and financing bodies as a method for assessing the responsibility and the quality of the scientific research. Scientometric performance indicators play an important role in evaluating the scientific production of a country which is why international measurement tools have been developed. This article presents the most frequently-used performance indicators, the benefits of scientometry for academics, and the means to perform a research using the Web of Science database.

New Education Form for School Librarians in the Master Level concerning Information Literacy
Author(s): Ágnes Hajdu Barát

The purpose of this paper is to present education methodology for the student aiming to become a teacher of library pedagogy in Hungary. This paper will summarize the results of the first years when library pedagogy courses were introduced, their curricula, division of subjects, experiences of practical teaching and portfolio of methods of completion. The aim of these courses is to broaden library pedagogy to enable students to develop the information literacy of children in schools and public libraries. The main conclusions consider the results of this education methodology, including changes to the legal conditions of the library pedagogy teacher. Thus the library pedagogy teacher becomes an accepted and desired employee on the job market.

Pimen Constantinescu. The Collection of Interwar Literary-Cultural Journals
Author(s): Rodica-Maria Volovici, Elena Mărginean, Florin Blezu

In the economy of the library of the “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu Romania, an important place is taken by the collection of about fifteen thousand volumes, mostly in the humanities. These were donated by Pimen Constantinescu, the first librarian and manager of the University of Cluj Library, Sibiu Branch. More than 515 reviews can be identified as part of the donor’s collection: many of these works are literary magazines, fiction, poetry, criticism and other writing. The aim of this study is to present a history of this valuable collection, from its establishment up until today. The research starts from the context which brought Pimen Constantinescu to Sibiu, his personality, his concerns and his motivations. Furthermore, we identify the growth and means of organisation of this cultural heritage that was threatened with destruction under the communist regime. There are no studies directly concerned with the history of this collection. We will however try to find links between Pimen’s appraisals on Romanian publishing activities and similar studies. Although Pimen subscribed to the most important journals in the country, we will focus especially on those which are less well-known, particularly emphasizing those less highlighted by studies on the Romanian history of press.

Multilingual Indexing in an Intercultural Context
Author(s): Maria Micle, Agneta Lovasz

Thanks to the impressive technological progress in communication, library users in the academic environment (teachers, researchers and students) enjoy growing autonomy and flexibility in study, research and documentation, facilitated by access to various information resources and specific search tools, especially in the virtual environment. Autonomy in information retrieval is one of the main goals of university libraries done through developing services and tools. The indexing process in libraries consists of the representation of a document’s content in a summarized form in order to ease information retrieval; the content analysis focuses, among others, on avoiding communication barriers between the public and the sources of information. The process developed from linear indexing (with a hierarchical structure) into coordinated indexing through descriptors or keywords. Inter- and trans-disciplinarity can be manifested in this form, although in this form it is entirely dependent on computing. In the intercultural context of libraries today, where language interference is part of everyday routine, the accessibility to collections depends increasingly on multilingual indexing. This however is not limited to the simple translation of the terms in the catalogue to the languages most used in the library, but also requires the creation of specialized multilingual thesauri. This work illustrates these areas of multilingual indexing proposing some examples of controlled vocabulary, extracted from a micro-thesaurus of the technical field of Mechanisms with descriptors in English, Romanian, German, and French.

Chapter II. Education, Intercultural Dialogues, E-Learning

The Analysis of Stress Causes in the Education of Professionals in the Romanian Academic Environment Compared to Other European Countries
Author(s): Mona Vintila, Sorin D. Vintila

In the frame of our project titled “WELNESS- Skills for true wellbeing,” we had the possibility to assess the main factors which adult educators identify as stress causes in the Romanian higher education system. Through this project, we identified tools which would enable educators to reduce their stress level and to enhance their level of wellbeing. All participants acknowledged the usefulness of the training in relation to understanding how one’s perceptions influence one’s communication. Participants from Romania fully agreed on the usefulness of the training course in relation to the knowledge and practical tools for active listening, non-verbal communication and giving feedback.

Jewish Theatre in Poland as an Institution of Nationality, Education and Intercultural Dialogue
Author(s): Agata Katarzyna Dąbrowska

The aim of the paper is to discuss the function of Jewish theatre in Poland as an institution promoting the knowledge of the Jewish culture and tradition and stimulating intercultural Polish-Jewish dialogue through ages. It focuses on the theatrical activities and their intellectual, social, political and cultural contexts. It shows relevance of the theatre’s works for academic researches and institutional structure for the study of East European Jewry. Finally, it discusses the impact of the Jewish theatre on the identity of the local Jewish communities, analyzing the creation of theatre’s self-image as cultural and educational institution in various historical periods.

Romanian Archaeological Education between “Demand” and “Offer:” On the Need for Non-formal Activities as Alternative to Educational Conservatorism
Author(s): Dorel Micle, Andrei Stavilă

Our paper begins with a brief and comparative analysis of the courses taught at the main universities of Romania in the History Faculties (focusing specifically on archaeology). The main types of courses and their teaching methods are reviewed and shown in the analytic chart of each course. Further on, the need for archaeology on the labour market is analysed, identifying the inadequacies between the theoretical and practical aspects of future archaeologists. The authors propose the necessity of implementing non-formal courses in order to support the Romanian educational system by supplementing and adapting it to the current needs of history graduates specialized in archaeology. Firstly, the alternatives to institutionalized classical teaching for undergraduate and graduate programmes are presented, and secondly, the implementation of continuous training programmes for those who graduated and want to specialize in certain fields of archaeology.

Using Modern Methods to Solve Geometry Problems
Author(s): Lupu Costică

The tests and studies of this research demonstrated the effectiveness of teaching with the use of computers in solving problems and fostering knowledge of Geometry, the development of active thinking and training of skills, as well as abilities in representing Geometric figures in plan.
The experimental lot is consists of 112 students of seventh grade students from the "Octavian Voicu" Middle School of Bacău (Romania). We used the formative type of the pedagogical experiment in order to verify the impact of using active-participative methods and modern techniques for teaching-learning-evaluating elements of Geometry relating to the points in plan.

Images as Teaching Aid Materials within the History Class
Author(s): Nicolae Hurduzeu

The use of images is a method specific to art history. However, artistic analyses of images can be used in history classes as well. Knowledge of art history is indispensable to the teacher when using images, photographs or paintings. In history classes, these pictures can become priceless historical sources which help analyze a series of social, political, economic and artistic aspects or mentalities. Portraits, images depicting certain events or scenes of everyday life, landscapes, images of cities, settlements, posters, caricatures etc. belong to this category of images. With the help of these pictures, the studied historical events are materialized, facilitating their perception and comprehension by the students. Such teaching materials deepen the understanding of historical events through the clearer perception regarding the particularities of the events they present.

Landmarks and Perspectives of Education in the Jiu Valley on the Collective Opinion Level
Author(s): Ion Hirghiduş, Ioan-Valentin Fulger

Education in Romania is facing a crisis nowadays. From the complexity of evolution from a central economy (and, implicitly, a central education), to a capitalist economy and an educational system that aligns itself to European standards, a series of negative opinions emerge regarding the future of schooling. Therefore, an important part of the citizens of the Jiu Valley (Romania) and, probably, of Romania altogether are still looking for landmarks which date from communist education. At the moment there are no viable governmental programs meant to reduce school dropout, which makes Romania a vulnerable country.

Transversal Competences or How to Learn Differently
Author(s): Mariana Craşovan

In this article, we try to answer a few critical questions: Why is developing the competences of learners so important and why should teaching, learning and assessment be grounded in a competence-based approach? How was such a curriculum based on transversal competences implemented at the West University of Timisoara (Romania)? In a dynamic and problem-based society, education systems focus more and more on helping learners develop a wide variety of competences to cope with our complex world. On a European level, different frameworks of competences were established which are meant to be developed in higher education. In relation to these competences, specialists invoke transversal competences, skills for life, such as: critical thinking, creativity, taking the initiative, problem solving, risk assessment, decision taking, constructive emotional management, cooperation and/or working in a team. From the 2014-2015 academic year onwards, the West University of Timisoara has implemented a system which allows students to choose three subjects from different specializations in order to develop transversal competences. In this paper, we analyze the way of implementation, elements of the course syllabus correlated with transversal competences and the skills developed through those subjects since its inception.

E-learning for Cultivating Entrepreneur Skills in Business Engineering
Author(s): Suzana Carmen Cismas, Ion Dona, Gabriela Ionela Andreiasu

Business engineering educates entrepreneur abilities by traditional teaching and virtual learning. Inter-disciplinary e-skills influence employability and further careers. Contemporary multi-disciplinary organizations include economists, engineers, lawyers, marketers and scientists, who capitalise formal and informal learning, so entrepreneurship is no longer mere innate talent, but a perfectible set of skills facilitating business survival and prosperity on a global market. E-learning thus enhances social inclusion by education in our modern knowledge society, where enterprise e-skills are keys for wider engagements: strategic thinking and planning, effective communication, and networking capacities which support the transition from academia to business.

CLIL in the Knowledge Society
Author(s): Suzana Carmen Cismas, Ion Dona, Gabriela Ionela Andreiasu

CLIL – Content and Language Integrated Learning – is an evolving approach where subjects are taught and studied through a non-native language, which is more challenging and intensive, as there is more idiom exposure and the students acquire knowledge and skills in various areas of the modern curriculum required by the global markets and the knowledge society. All CLIL subjects stem from the issues that define the knowledge society: active citizenship, business, engineering, management, marketing, technology, environment, information and communication, literacy and social sciences. This approach forms confident graduates with enhanced academic pro-cessing strategies and communication skills, able to favour intercultural understanding and foster community values.

The Role of Non-Formal Education in the Construction of the Social Identity of Ethnic Minorities
Case Study: Ethnic Turks and Tatars in Romania

Author(s): Melinda Dincă, Daniel Lucheș

Turk and Tatar communities from Romania conform to Islamic religious practices, share a common language, and have the capacity to preserve their cultural heritage. Our research focuses on the description (from the perspective of the subjects) of the main socialization agents in preserving the social identity of Turks and Tatars. Data collection was performed using direct non-participant observation, semi-structured individual interviews and visual investigative techniques of social networks. Written documents such as journal publications and data from official social statistic reports were also used. The empirical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014, and included over 100 interviews with Turk and Tartar individuals, as well as representatives of their ethnic organizations. The analysis shows that social identity is mainly shaped by non-formal education, inside the family, ethnic community, and social network constructed in relation to their own ethnic group.

Chapter III. Political Sciences, Democratization and Globalization

The Europeanization of Cities – A preliminary Assessment of Romanian Cities Competing for the 2021 European Capital of Culture Title
Author(s): Corina Turșie

Within the context of Multi-level European Governance, cities were given a new political space to exploit. This paper presents various forms of top-down and bottom-up dynamics of Europeanization, such as participation to urban networks, accession of territorial cooperation funds and participation to twinning agreements. These indicators of Europeanization are verified in the case of Romanian cities competing for the 2021 European Capital of Culture (ECoC) title, as an initial assessment of the ongoing national competition. Without having the pretention that this assessment has any predictive purpose, given the complexity of the ECoC competition, the results of this study confirm mostly the shortlist of Romanian finalist cities issued in December 2015. This analysis shows that the ECoC title is disputed by the most Europeanized cities, even if they are ex-communist cities, latecomers to the process of European integration.

The Lesson of Democracy: Nescience, Inability, Dissimulated Refuse?
Author(s): Ștefania Bejan

The present paper is particularly interested in analyzing the role of mass media (if a legitimate one!) in “teaching” the “lesson” of democracy, for which the exam is only passed with suffering and patience. Who invested mass media with this noble mission, what is the recognized profile of the teacher-authority bearer in this field of communication? With what strategies (arguments, rules, finalities and so on) does one stand at the negotiating table on the seductive, yet so thorny topic of democracy?

The Role of the Court of Justice of the European Union's Rulings in Matters of Asylum and Immigration
Author(s): Lavinia Andreea Bejan

By analyzing relevant case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, such as C-405/07 Elgafaji, C-31/09 Bolbol, C-411/10 N.S., joined with C-493/10 M. E. and others, C-4/11 Kaveh Puid, the present paper aims to clarify the manner in which the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union contributed to the interpretation of European Union legislation regarding asylum and migration, and, subsequently, how it referred to other relevant international or regional treaties. Also, the paper aims to offer a fair assessment of the importance of the rulings of the Court in matters of asylum and immigration.

The Historical-Dogmatic Impact of the Status of the Saint within the Christian Community
Author(s): Iacob Coman

In the present study we propose an interdisciplinary and confessional comparative approach of the saint’s status. Avoiding the controversy caused by the worship of saints, we will try to prove in this paper that throughout time, the entire life of the Christian community revolved around certain saints and was determined by them. The fundamentals of Christianity, or the continuation of the idea of God’s people from Israel towards Christianity is accomplished by “that Holy who shall be born of you...” (Luke 1:35), that is through Jesus Christ. This divine quality with openness to the humanity of those who sought the service of God will be alive during the life of the Church and will determine its history and all dogmatic and faith formulas. Finally we propose a conciliation in the assessment and perception of Saints that determined the life of the Christian community. Christianity owes everything to its predecessors who, more or less appreciated, infused in the future the magnificence of God’s love unfolded in Jesus Christ and transmitted to the Church and every man through the Holy Spirit.

Chapter IV. Applied Philosophy, Ethics and Bioethics, Critical Thought

Disciplinarian Thinking, Inter-Disciplinarity and Multi-Disciplinarity Revisited, with Complexity in Mind
Author(s): Michael Finkenthal

This paper discusses the concept of disciplinarian thinking (DT) in the context of inter and multi-disciplinarian (IDT and MDT) endeavors in Humanities and Social, Cultural and Political complex systems. It is shown that IDT and MDT cannot solve, as long as they are based on DT the problems posed by complexity. While moving from one discipline to another, whether we change or not the meaning of the concepts used, we conserve their single-valued character. Multi-disciplinarity, in the way defined here, turns out to be indeed a necessary tool for approaching complexity but it is by no means sufficient.

Philocaly as Ground for Philosophical Practice in Augustine
Author(s): Claudiu Mesaroș

Augustine’s opinion on the conditions one must fulfil in order to be able to understand and practice philosophy, namely to become a philosopher, depend on his use of a comparison between philocaly and philosophy that he may have learnt from the platonic tradition. In his Contra academicos and De ordine he discusses these terms showing that philocaly refers to a love for trivial beautiful things that can be coverted into a love for authentic beautiful things, and finally this will be converted into the love for wisdom or philosophy by liberal arts. There are three stages of love for beauty: love for the trivial beauty, educated love for attested beautiful things, and love for beauty understood as wisdom. Augustine applies this discussion to his friends and dialogue partners, Licentius and Romanianus, making it a subject of practical philosophy or philosophy as a program for life.

Knowledge as a Social Construct in Philosophy with Children
Author(s): Florin Lobont

The paper aims to present some of the principles of Philosophy for/with children that arguably lead to some simple, everyday practices to help children and young people become thoughtful, curious and reasonable. We will argue that Philosophy for or with Children’s central pedagogical tool is the community of inquiry, showing the positive role this structure plays in combating what is perceived to be a drift in society to the idea that opinions cannot be judged and do not need to be justified. This type of community will be presented as a context for facilitating personal relationships inspired by a sense of participative democracy, an effective instrument that can be employed in service of an intellectual endeavour which rests on the concept of knowledge as a continuous and fertile intersubjective change rather than as a mere transfer of information.

Does Low Fertility Rate Have Ethical Dimensions?
Author(s): János I. Tóth

The man's position in the world is constantly changing and morality should also change simultaneously. Applied ethics could help the moral evaluation of new technology, customs or the social phenomenon. According to the public opinion of the western world, a decision about having children is an essentially private one. A new problem appeared: the very low fertility rate, which is characteristic for a number of countries in Europe and East Asia. This demographic crisis obligatory leads to ageing and population decline ceteris paribus. Therefore, the question arises whether there is a need for re-evaluating this problem from moral point of view.

The Possibility of Global Bioethics in a Globalized World
Author(s): Maria Sinaci

This paper examines the possibility of the existence of global bioethics in a world in full globalization process which faces complex problems and requires ethical solutions and approaches based on international collaboration. The first part of this paper explains the meaning of “global bioethics” and its particular meaning used in this paper -- in order to avoid any confusion. Further on, the latest stage of bioethics is analyzed: its transition from its local to its global dimension. The main thesis of this study is that global bioethical construction can generate closeness in the approaches related to bioethics, given that universal values and norms are identified provided that this is not an absolute (albeit impossible) moral consensus. This study argues the possibility of global bioethics from a transversal perspective, exploring the fields of human rights, cultural pluralism, and religion.

The ‘Environmental’ Model as a Philosophical Framework for Analyzing Everyday Aesthetics as Environmental Communication
Author(s): Ştefan-Sebastian Maftei

This study has a twofold aim. First of all, to address the presence of everyday aesthetic qualities in the context of environmental communication through environmental action. Secondly, to provide a philosophical framework for analyzing the nature of the presence of everyday aesthetics in the context of environmental communication.

Artificial Consciousness in an Artificial World
Author(s): Ștefan Sarkadi

This paper presents the idea that using computers to simulate complex virtual environments can give rise to artificial consciousness within those environments. Currently, limitations in creating artificial consciousness may be imposed by material compounds that enable the transmission of signals through artificial systems such as robots. Virtual environments, on the other hand, provide the necessary tools for surpassing such limitations. I also argue that using virtual reality tools to enable complex interaction between humans and AI (artificial intelligence) within virtual environments is the most reasonable way to obtain artificial consciousness by appealing to the nature of human bias.

The Romanian Philosophical Historiography during the Proletcult Period
Author(s): Gabriela Esch

My work starts from the assumption that there is a proletcultist philosophy. What follows next are only a few chapters and it represents only the first steps in proving the truth of this supposition. The first part of this study aims to reconceptualise and reinterpret the proletcult period in Romania. The second section highlights aspects linked to the impact of the Proletckult in the Russian society. Furthermore, it includes a redefinition of proletcultism itself. The events which unfolded in society during the proletcult period are reflected in the culture and philosophy of the proletariat. The proletcultism, in philosophy, is a liquidation program of the philosophy, of termination of any effort of thinking. Jdanov’s work, a soviet citizen, is a work with a programmatic character. The Romanians followed in the proletcult period the soviet models. “Jdanovism” is the analysis of Andrey Alexandrovich Jdanov’s work “On G. F. Alexandrov’s The History of Western Philosophy.” This paper includes a number of prescriptions that form the model for discussing proletcultist philosophy.

The Transcendental Character of the Eternal Recurrence of the Same
Author(s): Monica Fetico

The eternal return may be interpreted as a transcendental notion and, therefore, as a possible condition for the other key concepts in Nietzsche’s philosophy. Based on this, I intend to link the eternal recurrence of the same to the Kantian theory of perception as described in Critique of Pure Reason , and to the categorical imperative. Before doing so, this paper will emphasize that the eternal return was made possible by conveying the message of the death of God. Hence, there are three hypotheses which need to be discussed:
1. The eternal recurrence of the same is possible in Nietzsche’s philosophy only by admitting that God is dead.
2. The eternal return is a necessary condition for lived experience. Here, I will consider the common aspects of the eternal recurrence and the a priori intuition of time presented in Kant’s transcendental aesthetic as a priori forms of the intuitions belonging to the subjective constitution of the human mind.
3. The eternal recurrence holds the value of a categorical imperative. The aim of this paper is to argue the fact that the eternal recurrence of the same is a universal and necessary condition for the lived experience It is, therefore, a transcendental principle in Nietzsche’s philosophy.