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Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South Eastern Europe


ISBN 978-615-80340-0-5
Edited by David Raisz

Integration of Capacity Markets into the European Electricity Market
Author(s): Giorgos Stamtsis, Vassilis Lychnaras

Abstract:
The present paper analyses the evolution of the capacity markets within the context of the European electricity markets. Specifically, it analyses the history of European capacity markets and the new challenges that the emergence of these markets brings to the process of the European internal market.

Simulation of Weather Impacts on the Wholesale Electricity Market
Author(s): Bei Zhang, Payman Dehghanian, Mladen Kezunovic

Abstract:
This paper investigates the weather-driven performance of electricity markets in the operational time frame. Employing the probability distribution fitting approaches, weather impacts on power generation and electricity demand are modeled and assessed through processing large volume of historical data sets. Several novel weather-impact indices are proposed in this paper to evaluate the vulnerability of the generation as well as the sensitivity of the loads in response to given weather conditions. By incorporating the stochastic weather behavior into power generation and electricity demand modeling, as well as asset reliability constraints, the uncertain aspects of the market operation, such as system costs, locational marginal prices, congestion, reserve price, etc., can be well evaluated by the use of Point Estimation Method (PEM). Numerical experiments on a modified IEEE-RTS system are eventually conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate the necessity of weather-impact considerations in the electricity market decision making.

Electricity Pricing and Market Power: Evidence from the Hungarian Balancing Energy Market
Author(s): László Paizs

Abstract:
This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between market structure and energy prices in the Hungarian balancing energy market. In Hungary, balancing energy is procured in two phases: firstly a reserve capacity auction is organized to select the generation capacities that are kept in reserve and available to the TSO in a specific day, and then a balancing energy auction is used to determine the dispatch order of reserved capacities in the hours of that day. Under this arrangement the winners of the reserve auctions and thereby the bidders in the balancing energy auctions change significantly form one day to the next. I exploit this variation in the bidding environment in the balancing energy auctions to identify the effect of market structure on prices. My empirical analysis focuses on the downward balancing market where generators submit bids for purchasing energy from the TSO. Consistently with the theoretical results in Fabra, von der Fehr, and Harbord [1], I find that the average purchasing price is positively affected by the number of bidders and the symmetry in capacity share distribution.

Monitor UP: New Solution for Grid Frequency and Voltage Functional Monitoring
Author(s): Marcello Testori, Olivier Lamquet, David Dresco, Adriano Gubernal

Abstract:
Transmission System Operators (TSOs) are in charge of the security, safety and reliability of the power system. One aspect of this responsibility is to verify that all the grid connected units are compliant with the Grid Code. Within all the technical rules described in the Grid Code, ancillary services for voltage and frequency controls have a relevant part since they have a direct impact on power system reliability. The Italian TSO Terna has initiated a project with the purpose of monitoring the performances of the frequency and voltage controls provided by the main power units connected to the Italian grid. CESI has been asked to assist Terna in the definition and implementation of this project. CESI has developed the MONITOR UP application which implements Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for the ancillary services and provide grid operators with information about the grid overall control of voltage and frequency. The analyses performed by the application are both static and dynamic. The elaborations are based on measurements coming from Terna national control system. Based on its input, Monitor UP computes KPIs which can characterize the performances of the frequency and voltage controls supplied by the power units. The scope of this article is to illustrate the analyses of the measurements, theoretical studies and software realizations of Monitor UP application.

Enhancing the Power System Observability with the Aid of Phasor Measurement Units
Author(s): Ahmed Hamdy Ghazy Ibrahim, Walid A. Omran, Said Fouad Mekhamer

Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for optimally allocating the Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) in a power system. The proposed approach is based on Binary Integer Programming (BIP) to minimize the total number of PMUs that can achieve full system observability. The full system observability is ensured both in normal operating conditions and in case ofN-1 contingencies such as the outage of a PMU or a transmission line. Moreover, the approach is utilized to allocate the PMUs in case of limited number of PMU channels. The problem formulation considers the Zero Injection Buses (ZIBs) and uses a set of rules that can improve the redundancy of the PMUs by choosing better locations without increasing their number. The proposed approach is applied on the IEEE standard systems 14, 30 and 57 test systems. The simulations results are compared with other approaches used in the literature to validate the performance of the proposed approach.

Static Voltage Stability Investigations on a Part of a Transmission Grid
Author(s): Csaba Farkas, Andor Faludi, Tamás Decsi

Abstract:
Reliable power supply is crucial for all the industrial and household consumers, but the voltage-preserving capability might decrease at certain parts of the grid because of reduced reactive power generation, as conventional generating units are out of operation. It is very important to investigate, whether this weakened grid can still supply the customers even under stressed operating conditions. We used the PV analysis capability of PSS/E software to investigate the voltage stability of a 50 bus model for various contingency situations. Voltage stability investigations show what the limits of power supply with low reactive power generating capacity inside the investigated area and under pre-specified stressed operating conditions are. The investigated grid has limited internal generating capacity, most of the real and reactive power comes from outer sources: simulations have also been conducted to investigate how various contingencies and import scenarios affect system losses.

Achieved Results, Problems and Future of Directive 2009/28/EC ("20/20/20 Directive")
Author(s): Filip Rendulić, Hrvoje Pirić, Ivica Kuliš, Marin Cerjan

Abstract:
Driven by increasing climate changes, the European Commission launched a plan to mitigate and combat them in early 2007. It took more than a year and a half for the plan to be passed after difficult negotiations among Member States. It was finally adopted by the European Parliament in late 2009. The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of Europe on promotion of renewable energy sources 2009/28/EC was adopted on 23rd April 2009 and it has become a part of the Energy and Climate Package of the European Union. It places great importance on renewable energy sources and confirms the 20-20-20 targets on increasing the share of energy production from renewable sources to 20 percent by 2020, increasing energy efficiency by 20 percent and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 percent. In this paper, a review of previous achievements, problems and the future of the above plan is given.

Harmonisation of the Turkish Electricity Transmission Grid Regulations in Line with ENTSO-E
Author(s): Pascal Bertolini, Mehmet Kara

Abstract:
The Turkish power system is now permanently operated in synchronous connection with the system of Continental Europe. A common set of rules is needed for operational monitoring and coordination of this highly integrated system, especially in the context of rapid penetration of renewable energy sources. Moreover, market regulations in Turkey shall need to facilitate cross-border trading with ENTSO-E members and prepare the Turkey’s integration into the European wholesale electricity market. The alignment of Turkish connection requirements with those of Continental Europe is another step towards consistent operation by standardising the design of users’ facilities in the whole interconnected system. To meet these objectives, the Turkish power system regulations are in the process of being harmonised in order to be in line with ENTSO-E technical standards for the operation of the interconnected grid of Continental Europe (the Operation Handbook) and with nine draft EU network codes and regulations. TEIAS is carrying out this harmonisation of regulations as part of a project co- financed by the European Union and the Republic of Turkey Service, with the assistance of a consortium led by RTE International. The project is now completed and the amended Turkish regulations will be published as soon as the corresponding EU network codes and regulations are enacted.

TSOs and DSOs Collaboration: The Need for Data Exchange
Author(s): Rui Alves, Francisco Reis, Caihao Liang

Abstract:
This paper presents common challenges facing Transmission Systems Operators (TSOs) and Distribution System Operators (DSOs), as well as the correlated need for a stronger cooperation between them in an environment of unbundled power systems. It addresses different operational and planning areas where the interaction between TSOs and DSOs is presently scarce, showing, through explanatory case-studies, the benefits of an improved and further structured data exchange among grid operators. Outcomes demonstrate that TSO and DSO information exchange allows improved levels of renewable energy sources penetration, as well as an important contribute to help system operators enhancing both short and long-term system security.

Revealing Disturbance Localization Issues in Large Power Systems
Author(s): Urban Rudez, Rafael Mihalic

Abstract:
Most of European Transmission System Operators report positive experience concerning national Wide Area Monitoring System (WAMS). Currently, WAMS is mainly used for off-line analysis of past events; however, few reports of its use in the process of real-time decision- making can also be found in the literature. As TSOs confidence in this technology increases, several important steps have already been made towards implementing WAMS as a permanent tool for operator’s real-time assistance. In this paper , issues concerning electromechanical disturbance localization in large electric power systems are enlightened and explained. Research so far showed that the task is far from being trivial. Common localization techniques such as multilateration might exhibit unacceptable errors in determining geographical location of the source. Namely, disturbance propagation speed can vary up to several times, depending on the electrical network specifics. This is why the quest for alternative approaches to localization is underway in order to increase its accuracy to a satisfactory level.

Dynamic Analysis of Parallel Operation of Doubly-fed and Synchronous Machine
Author(s): Valentin Azbe, Rafael Mihalic

Abstract:
Dynamic analysis of doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) in hydro pumped storage plant is analyzed and compared with synchronous machine in this paper. Since DFIM is relatively new technology, models of turbine governor and models of voltage control for DFIM were presented in literature just recently. In this paper the model of turbine governor and the model of control of converter are presented and applied in computer software for dynamic analyses of electric-power system. The behavior of DFIM during large and small transients is compared with the behavior of synchronous machine and described from the power-system-engineer point-of-view.
In the case of large faults crow-bar protection convert DFIM to a classical asynchronous machine, so transient stability of DFIM is analyzed as transient stability of asynchronous machine. Due to variable speed of DFIM better transient stability of this machine was determined compared to a synchronous machine. Results of dynamic simulations show that smaller and shorter oscillations of speed and active power are present by DFIM. Besides longer critical clearing times can be achieved by DFIM

A Novel Autonomous Monitoring System for Distributed Leakage Current Measurements on Outdoor High Voltage Insulators
Author(s): Nikolaos Mavrikakis, Michalis Kapellakis, Dionisios Pylarinos, and Kiriakos Siderakis

Abstract:
The reliable operation of power networks is strongly related to the performance of high voltage insulators. Local weather conditions, environmental pollution, insulator material and high voltage level mainly affect the operation of the installed insulators in high voltage transmission systems. At the last decades, important advance has been made in high voltage insulation by introducing composite materials with innovating advantages comparing to the traditional ceramics, improving the insulators performance even heavy polluted conditions. However, composite materials have limited operation life respecting to their exposure to field ageing mechanisms. Considering all these parameters, the common maintenance techniques of high voltage insulators cannot confront the problem. A parameter which can substantially contribute to the maintenance actions of power utilities is the monitoring of the electrical surface activity of insulators. In this framework, a novel low cost autonomous leakage current monitoring system for high voltage insulators is proposed and gradually constructed in order to respond to the advanced needs of power operators.

Modelling the SSSC Device in the Power Flow Problem as Power Injections Regulated According to First Order Sensitivity
Author(s): Gorazd Bone and Rafael Mihalič

Abstract:
In this paper we present a possibility of modeling the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) in the load flow problem as power injections at the nodes of the line into which it is inserted. The power injections representing the SSSC are used as inputs in a power flow calculation. Upon solving the power flow calculation, without an SSSC device, a mismatch vector, consisting of SSSC requirements is obtained. The power injections representing the SSSC device are then updated so as to minimize the mismatch vector in accordance with first order sensitivity and the load flow calculation is restarted with newly obtained injections. Convergence of this procedure is obtained when the mismatch vector after a power flow calculation is sufficiently small.

State of Charge Rate for Photovoltaic Inverters with Adaptive Battery Storage
Author(s): Bálint Dávid Olaszi, József Ladányi

Abstract:
The paper presents a yearly optimal State of Charge (SoC) level calculating function to the grid connected residential size PV energy storage systems. Main aim is to decrease the electric grid peak load, energy need by offering an adaptive SoC value to the grid connected PV inverter with energy storage. The simulation utilizes a global optimization method with low computation need and it is tested on a yearlong measurement data which is unique in his segment. The goal of the work is to lower the duration of the residential peak time and raise the off-peak time energy need by increasing the minimal SoC level of the grid connected PV inverter with energy storage without charging the energy storage in off-peak time. Meanwhile, the adaptive algorithm is minimizing the electric grid dependence, without adding as few as possible extra charge/discharge cycles to the energy storage.
In contrast of other widely known SoC algorithms the approach presented here has a verified capability to be used in all seasons. Moreover throughout this paper only real generating data of a small scale PV plant is use
Furthermore, corresponding formula is explored between the size of the energy storage, the saved energy and the PV production/energy need ratio in yearly base.

Selected Problems of Microgeneration Development in Poland
Author(s): Waldemar Dolega

Abstract:
This paper describes selected problems of current development of microgeneration in Poland. Analysis of microgeneration in Poland is shown. Technical, economical and market potential of microgeneration in Poland is defined. Analysis and assessment of microgeneration in Poland in technical, economical and environmental aspects is made. Perspectives of development of microgeneration up to 2020 in context of the implementation of the EU’s “3 x 20%” climate package by Poland and national quantitative target for RES development by year 2020 are described. Selected technical, economic and legal problems of development of microgeneration in Poland are shown. Conclusions contain analysis of barriers and perspectives of development of microgeneration in Poland in the future.

Optimization of the CHP Plant “EL-TO Zagreb” Operation
Author(s): Mladen Zeljko, Krešimir Komljenović, Dražen Jakšić, Ivana Milinković Turalija and Hrvoje Keko

Abstract:
CHP plant “EL-TO Zagreb” consists of four cogeneration units and three auxiliary boilers that produce heat, process steam and electricity. The primary purpose of the power plant is district heating and supply of steam to industrial consumers, but it also produced a significant amount of electricity in the past. The rise of natural gas prices in recent years decreased the competitiveness of electricity production of this power plant and analyses have shown the possibility for reduction of operating costs by changing the operation regime of the power plant. Due to electricity and gas market price variations, an optimization model of CHP plant has been developed to enable short-term operation planning in order to reduce operating costs. Electricity market simulation and optimization software PLEXOS® Integrated Energy Model was used to model the power plant. A large amount of input data used includes technical and economic parameters of all units of the power plant, hourly heat and steam load data and market data. Using heat and steam demand projections and market prices, simulations are performed on a detailed hourly basis for one week in advance. Thus the CHP plant operation is optimized according to the current market conditions in order to meet the heat and steam demand at the lowest possible cost. Operation management based on the optimization results showed the possibilities for significant decrease of operating costs and improvement of CHP plant profitability.

Hydro Pump Storage Energy Units in Crete’s Power System
Author(s): Emmanuel S. Karapidakis

Abstract:
Large scale integrating of wind power generation into a grid may raise serious stability issues. In this case energy storage systems seem to be suitable for balancing power and energy between the inconstant wind parks generation and the grid. In this paper, the impact of high wind power penetration on the dynamic performance and stability of power systems is investigated. More precisely, the focus of this study is to assess the operation of pump storage systems in the autonomous power system of a large island such as Crete. Results of this study show that it is possible to achieve a large wind power penetration without significant dynamic security problems, if wind energy pump storage units are in operation.

Application of Cloud Computing for Power Systems
Author(s): Berthold Bitzer

Abstract:
In the past power system is evolved through different restructuring and policy changes at different periods. From the early stage of state owned monopoly energy providing service to smart grid driven customer and third party aggregators’ participation in order to cope up to the ever growing energy demand in terms of capacity as well as the dynamics of end user consumption, demand side management, different energy generation systems and demand response. In this process information communication and computation systems are playing a major role in monitoring, controlling and improving the energy delivery system. In smart grid a vast amount of data is collected from every corner of the energy delivery network, from customer energy meters, energy generation units in the customer premises and third party players. This bi-directional information flow needs appropriate communication ways and the collected vast amount of data has to be processed in a reliable, distributed, parallel and scalable computing resources. On the other hand the power system is lacking such computing capacity to address this requirement. Researchers suggest that cloud computing may be used to address this problem. In this paper the application of cloud computing for power system application is analysed. The feasibility study of the available cloud computing tools for smart grid is conducted.

Training Simulation Models and Architectures in Power System Operation and Control
Author(s): Róbert Gaál, Attila Kovács

Abstract:
This paper summarizes - particularly the Hungarian - experiences of dispatcher training simulation in the area of electrical power systems. The paper analyzes the widely different requirements of operators at different hierarchical levels of the network and suggests ways in which these might be met. Training simulation in electrical networks has to combine the flexibility of study simulation and the experience of events in real-time. The degree of detail and points of emphasis of the models can vary to a great extent. This depends on the role people trained on the simulator play in system supervision. The algorithms and methods outlined in this paper can fulfill these various requirements, and provide the possibility of modelling distribution or transmission networks, power plant household networks or railway traction power networks. The models can easily be extended with the feature of the simulation of renewable generation or micro grids as well.

Features, Enhancements and Perspectives of State Estimation in Serbian TSMO
Author(s): Jelena R.Veselinović, Miloš V. Stojić, Goran S. Jakupović

Abstract:
Serbian transmission and market system operator has two operational SCADA/EMS systems working in parallel. During the years of working in production, some weak points in applications functioning have emerged and they have triggered improvements in the process of planning and specifying technical requirements. In the process of upgrade of these systems, new important features have been carefully tested through many additional user-designed (unstructured) tests, giving a new set of ideas for further improvements. In this paper, we will look back at some of the most frequent problems emerging in continuous real-time state estimation operation and their correlation with our improvements. We will also point out some other interesting features related to SCADA/EMS, as seen through the eyes of a SCADA/EMS engineer and Power Systems Analysis engineer. Also, the authors will give an overview of some key requirements for more reliable state estimation process and point out other affecting factors, considering its role in market environment and the need for its very stringent percent of availability. A brief overview of current and future work to improve EMS applications in order to meet requirements of future regional market integration will be given at the end of the paper.

Implementation and Testing of AGC SMM Control Block in NDC in Serbian TSMO within the Project of Modernisation and Upgrading of Existing SCADA/EMS System
Author(s): Mirela Đurđević, Zoran Rudić, Nikola Obradović, Goran Jakupović, Ninel Čukalevski

Abstract:
In order to maintain the frequency and power exchanges with neighbouring systems on a given (planned) values, in accordance with the rules of the European Interconnection (ENTSO – E Continental Europe), Serbian TSMO (PE EMS) is obliged to provide a reserve of active power for the needs of secondary control within the power system of Serbia. Within interconnection of Continental Europe, Transmission System Operators of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia form a control block, named SMM (Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia). As a coordinator of SMM Control Block EMS is obliged to calculate, in real-time, Area Control Error (ACE) of SMM Block and ACE of each control block member. Within the project of modernisation and upgrading of existing SCADA/EMS system, an improved Automatic Generation Control (AGC) function has been implemented. Usually AGC system should provide the following functions: control of frequency and power exchange (LFC), planning of interchange scheduling (ITS), monitoring of reserves (RM) and performance monitoring of LFC control (PM). Additionally EMS AGC system has LFC regulator of SMM Block (SMM).

Integration of the New Trading Support System with the Existing IT System at One SEE Generation Company
Author(s): Suzana Cvetićanin, Goran Jakupović, Ninel Čukalevski, Radomir Stamatović, Davor Pupovac

Abstract:
The PE EPS (Electric Power Industry of Serbia) is in the process of procurement of the new, state-of-the-art, trading support system of the ETRM (Enterprise Trading and Risk Management) type that will considerably improve current energy/ancillary services trading practices of EPS at the SEE energy/service market.
To speed up the implementation process and to enable ETRM proper use it was necessary to migrate some of the data from the existing trading contracts database. Also, necessary data about hourly planned unit generations, interchange and other related data have to be ‘’captured’’ on-line from the existing web-based IT system.This paper will briefly describe the generation company (Gen Co) current IT support and will present solution architecture one that enabled data migration into the new ETRM system. It will also explain proposed procedure for the acquisition, extraction and transfer of the on-line/archive TSO and GenCo data from the existing web-based system to the new trading support system at the trading floor of one SEE Gen Co.
At the end paper will present information about the information technologies used for the solution implementation, as well as experience from its initial practical use.

Modelling photovoltaic power
Author(s): Fotis Mavromatakis, Frank Vignola and Yannis Franghiadakis

Abstract:
There are several reasons why a robust and reliable model describing the instantaneous power produced by a photovoltaic system is useful. Module failures, inverter malfunction and shadowing are some of the problems leading to energy loss that can be detected with the aid of a sufficiently good model. Furthermore, a reliable model enables an investor to accurately estimate the system energy production, payback times etc. The model that has been developed adopts the known dependence upon solar irradiance and temperature but it also takes into account the airmass, the angle of incidence and the efficiency drop due to low values of solar irradiance. In addition, ohmic losses, soiling can be taken into account either as a fixed term or variable term if sufficient data are available. Generic functions describing the airmass and angle of incidence effects can be used based upon the module technology but these functions can also be determined for the specific modules under study. The model is validated against high quality data available from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA). The data consist of current-voltage traces of specific modules of different technologies along with solar irradiance at the plane of the module and module temperature. Initial results of the model validation are presented in this work. The dependence of the residuals upon solar irradiance temperature, airmass and angle of incidence is also explored.

Experimental Characterization of a Single Axis Photovoltaic Tracking System
Author(s): Muhammad Naveed M. Shaikh, Nicholas C. Demetriou, Petros C. Petrou and Antonis P. Papadakis

Abstract:
Nowadays, photovoltaic is one of the most prominent renewable energy source technologies. One of the most important aspects of maximizing the photovoltaic output is for the photovoltaic panel to face the sun at a right angle at all times such that maximum irradiation is incident on the solar cells. Due to the continuous movement of the sun, an automatic solar tracking system is necessary for tracking purposes. Ideally, a dual axis tracking system is necessary to track the sun in longitudinal and vertical directions; however the elevation angle to the sun in Cyprus is constant and known beforehand at an approximate elevation angle of 27o to the South. Alternatively, one can use a much cheaper and effective single axis tracking system to track the sun effectively. The solar panel is allowed to move longitudinally from East to West from -165 to 165o to sync with the sun. In order to conduct experimental measurements and verify them with analytical results, the I-V400 Photovoltaic Tester was utilized. The instrument was used to measure the incident power density of light and operating temperature of the photovoltaic panel using a light sensor and thermocouple respectively, as well as the current-voltage characteristics such as open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, maximum power point operation and efficiency. The photovoltaic panel readings were taken under varying weather conditions in an attempt to compare with analytical results and determine the various parameters of the literature specific to the photovoltaic panel. A superior performance using the single axis tracking system was observed when compared to the fix PV panel case, producing 15.63% more average power.

Fleet Management and Grid Integration of PV Generating Stations
Author(s): Kiriakos Siderakis, Antiopi Gigantidou, Konstantinos Lagouvardos, Eleftheria Kavousanaki, Fotis Mavromatakis and Dimitrios Kounalakis

Abstract:
The integration of renewable sources in electric power systems motivates considerable changes, to many aspects related with their operation and control. The rate of change is further accelerated in the case of Photovoltaic Generation (PV) due to features that this technology demonstrates. The impacts that PV generation can have, in the power grid operation, are investigated in this paper. Further, considering these impacts, management schemes that will allow the operator to assume the operation of a virtual PV generator, containing a fleet of PV stations are investigated. The analysis relies to the power system of Crete, which is a very interesting case study, considering the production scheme and the integration of RES.

Economic Analysis of Domestic Electricity Production by Roof-Top Photovoltaic Systems in Two Provinces of Turkey
Author(s): Ayten Özkök, Önder Güler

Abstract:
Solar radiation of the location and applied incentives in the country are effective factors on photovoltaic system investments’ feasibility. In this study, domestic electricity production by grid connected roof-top photovoltaic systems has been analyzed regarding to economic aspects. The two pilot provinces having the highest solar radiation in Marmara Region (Istanbul) and Mediterranean Region (Antalya) in Turkey were selected according to solar energy potential atlas (GEPA). As an autonomous load the average daily consumption of 11.45 kWh was determined for a four-person household and roof-top photovoltaic systems with capacity of 3 kW, 4kW and 5kW were simulated by using HOMER software. It was analyzed whether or not conducted incentives in Istanbul and Antalya was sufficient and under what conditions roof-top photovoltaic systems investments were feasible. Roof-top photovoltaic systems investments in Istanbul and Antalya was economically not feasible due to pay back period of 16.0-16.8 years and 12.9-13.5 years respectively. Regarding to environmental issues photovoltaic systems with capacity of 5kW in Istanbul and Antalya, reduction of CO2 emissions per detached house has been calculated around 3 tons and 3.5 tons respectively.

Optimization of Switch Allocation in Power Distribution Systems
Author(s): L. Zemite, J. Gerhards, M. Gorobetz, A. Levchenkov

Abstract:
The electric power system with its generation, as well as its transmission and distribution networks, is one of the most complex technical systems that humanity has created. A special concern pertains to the distribution networks on which most failures occur. Improved reliability can be obtained by increased investments, reinvestments and maintenance. The goal of this study is to examine the impact of components failure on distribution reliability. The paper describes a fault restoration sequence and duration in a distribution system and interruptions frequency and duration for different components and a development procedure for simulation after a fault and calculating associated time-varying failure rates and reliability indices and customers’ outage costs. The approach minimizes the costs of allocation and energy not supplied, under reliability constraints. The simulation is based on genetic algorithm concept. Case studies with a several network configurations and real-world scenarios were used to evaluate the methodology.

MyAvis and Converge Applications a better Meter- Management System for the Albanian Power Distribution System (OSHEE)
Author(s): Anni Dasho, Genci Sharko

Abstract:
The main Sales and Distribution Divisions of OSHEE- Albanian Power Distribution Corporate (former CEZ Shpërndarje) were on continuous discussions at CEZ management time and even now when OSHEE is under Albania Government administration and management:
- How important, and what will be the impact of developing and implementing an electronic meter reading system (MyAvis & Converge) to facilitate the work of the readers and transmitting data online through Albanian mobile operators?- Necessity of continuing with electronic readings, data transmitted online to billing system and online photos of real status of electrometers during reading process?
The two main processes to be managed through Data Cleaning project in close cooperation with management of Loses and Customers Care Application for clarifying and supporting all clients for their problematic cases regarding:
- Management of Common Areas-solution to be implemented in Billing System: close cooperation with management of loses through data cleaning process.
- Invoice delivery and monthly payment collection through Meter-Readers.

Implementation of Prepaid Metering System necessity for the Albanian Power System (OSHEE)
Author(s): Genci Sharko, Anni Dasho

Abstract:
Approval of the new Albanian Power Market Model, constitutes an important step towards the consolidation and sustainable development of the Electricity Market in Albania.
The Albanian Power sector is facing serious financial and operational challenges, manifested by a large unfunded deficit of about US$550 million and a high level of technical and commercial losses of about 42 percent (year 2013) – the highest in the region – due to non-payment of electricity bills by consumers, as well as poor collection rates.
To increase the management level of the whole meter management sector it was necessity the implementation of SMART Metering Applications. Implementation of reading all customers consumption by using PDA equipment’s. Reading the value of the monthly energy consumed and transmit online to “MyAvis” System through GPRS mobile companies system. Implementing on big customers, online data transmitting of energy consumed without the presence of the readers through the GPRS mobile companies network - “Converge” System. Implementation of Prepaid Metering System, piloting a small zone in Tirana around of 2000 clients.
The main goal of implementing SMART Metering System Applications is supplying costumers with electricity in both quality and economical manner, this fact will come as a necessity for OSHEE management level to establish the Smart Grid and Scada System, making the existing distributed system to be monitored and operated from the distance, in order to carry out optimization, automation of control, and better management of Billing and Collection Systems.

Maximization of RES Utilization in Case of Crete’s Interconnection
Author(s): Emmanuel S. Karapidakis

Abstract:
Although, there is even higher capacity of RES that could be utilized, the current power system operation and control emerge limitations, which hold back their further exploitation. More precisely, this study analyses current island power system operation and demonstrates benefits and obstacles of an interconnection. The potential of ultra- high share of RES is technically feasible, while provides under specific implementation strategies advantages in stability, reliability, and energy adequacy.

E-mobility Outlook of Hungary
Author(s): Peter Gyenes

Abstract:
E-mobility and e-cars are very current topics in Hungary and in the EU. After the acceptance of the EU directive on alternative fuel infrastructure and the several announcements of Hungary’ s leading government representatives about the vast amount of money to spend and challenging goals to reach in this industry the remaining main questions are: what is the realistic number of electric cars in Hungary, what will be the effect on the energy industry and how far does it worth the investment. Our presentation will seek answers to these questions.



 
 
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