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The Philosophy of Saint Gerard of Cenad in Cultural and Biographic Context

Online ISBN 978-615-80340-3-6
Volume 2 (published online 2016 - with the permission of JATE Press)
Pages 1-156
Softcover ISBN 978-963-315-148-8 (published by JATE Press)
Softcover publication date: 2013, Szeged
Edited by Claudiu Mesaroş


Author(s): Claudiu Mesaroș

Izvoare istorice cu privire la Vita Gerardi
Historische Quellen bezüglich der Vita Gerardi

Author(s): Martin Roos

Die ungarische wie die rumänische historiographische, hagiographische und theologische Literatur erkennt als älteste Schriften dieser Art die verschiedenen Varianten der Gerhardslegende. Diese stellen uns eigentlich die Persönlichkeit dieses wichtigen im mittelalterlichen Banat tätigen Bischofs vor, der energisch durch Wissen und Tat unsere Ecke Europas definitiv prägte. Die ganze Reihe von Varianten und Manuskripte, die verschiedene distinktive Elemente aufweisen, wird in zwei große Kathegorien aufgeteilt: die der Legenda minor verwandten Varianten und die, die der reicheren Legenda maior näher stehen. All diese Manuskripte, sammt ihrer Aufbewahrungsorte, werden in der vorliegenden Studie aufgezählt.

The Deliberatio of Bishop Saint Gerard of Csanád
Author(s): Előd Nemerkényi

În contextul studiilor asupra latinei medievale și a tradiției clasice în Evul Mediu, studiul de față oferă o panoramă a vieții și operei Sfântului Episcop Gerard de Cenad, în mod special asupra cărții Deliberatio:manuscris și ediții, poziția autorului față de moștenirea greacă și sursele patristice, atitudinea față de artele liberale, în mod special față de retorica antică, locul textului în tradiția clasică.

Cântarea celor Trei Tineri: un posibil model gnoseologic de sorginte biblică
The Song of the Three Young Men: A Possible Gnoseological Model of Biblical Origin

Author(s): Constantin Jinga

This essay analyzes the Song of the Three Young Men in a biblical context. We are also intrested to in following it along its historical reception in the context of Christian liturgical milieu and of Patristic theological reflection. Through our approach we aim to understand why the Song of the Three Young Men was so attractive to Christian authors and so widespread among Christians even since the third and fourth centuries. Meanwhile, we will outline the range of this fragment, as a context for St. Gerard of Cenad’s dissertation, Deliberatio supra hymnum trium puerorum ad Isingrimum liberalem.

Deliberatio supra Hymnum trium puerorum, un text filosofic
The Deliberatio Supra Hymnum Trium Puerorum as a Medieval Philosophical Book

Author(s): Claudiu Mesaroş

Gerard of Cenad is the author of Deliberatio supra hymnum trium puerorum, an eleventh Century Latin mystical and philosophical treatise, in many ways specific to the Carolingian Age, inspired by the Dyonisian and Eriugenian terminology. It contains many arguments for introducing Gerard as typical medieval philosopher; still, it was only at the end of the Eighteenth Century that his work knew its first printed edition made by Bishop Ignatius Batthyány of Transylvania; he named Gerard a philosopher for the first time as well. Nevertheless, neither European philosophical historiography nor academic classicists noticed it until the end of the twentieth Century. In our study we inspect the most representative arguments that support considering Gerard a philosopher in order to contribute to a coherent narrative regarding the concept of philosophy in Gerard of Cenad. There is a hermeneutic practice in Gerard, consisting in assuming a living experience of the direct relation to the content to be interpreted. We must be philosophers, according to Gerard, for several reasons: saints enjoy philosophy and practice it with delight; philosophy can make us friends of Christ, to the extent it is close to the amor vitae; it is an optimal way to follow God (as scientia Sacri), preferred to simple devotion (holocaust) and to the simple dialectic; philosophy brings truths similar to the Bible.

Modele şi repere estetice în opera Sfântului Gerard de Cenad
Aesthetic Models and Highlights in the Work of Saint Gerard of Cenad

Author(s): Claudiu Teodor Arieșan

A remarkable figure of the Church History from the province of Banat, the Venetian Gerardo who became around the year 1000 the first Bishop of Cenad by the will of the Hungarian king Stephen proves himself to be more and more a theologian who deserves the attention of specialists, a refined intellectual and a remarkable ecclesiastical writer, although only a few of his writings have won the battle against time. His presumed aesthetic models and the cultural landmarks that guided his taste for beauty have caught our attention in this essay which attempts to build some milestones in view of a future larger search on this subject.

Din Deliberările Sfântului Gerard de Cenad
From the Deliberations of Saint Gerard of Cenad

Author(s): Constantin Rupa

What is Saint Gerard’s position on the liberal arts and especially on philosophy? Is the author of The Deliberation on the Hymn of the Three Young Men a dialectician or an anti- dialectician? The key component for the answer of both questions is hidden in the use of an apparently banal metaphor borrowed from the theological intertextualiy, and which refers to “the vessels and garments of silver and gold” (vasa atque ornamenta de auro et argento), the treasure that the children of Israel borrowed of the Egyptians when they left the land of Egypt (see Exodus 12:35 and 2 Corinthians 4:7): „This treasure – says St. Gerard – is now bore in earthen vessels (vasis fictilibus). It is the great treasure that all the great talents put above time and keep only in earthen vessels in any treasury, vessels that we must not break without reason. This treasure could not be possessed by King Darius or Xerxes or Arthaxerxes, nor Xerxes Ochus or Xerxes son of Ochus, neither Alexander or his son Ptolemy Largus, nor Ptolemy Philadelphus, nor Ptolemy son of Cleopatra, and other [kings] who have acquired and divided the entire world; neither the Stoics nor Platonists or Academics, who consider all uncertain, or the Aristotelians who say that part of the soul is mortal, another eternal, nor the Epicureans, adherents of the one who was called ‘pig’ by the stupid wise men, the one who says that the world is made only of atoms and that there is nothing after death; nor the Gymnosophists who say that the world is invisible and that God is made of four elements, and nor any other colleagues thereof. These earthen vessels are surely more worthy for the humble, silent and fearful words [of philosophers] than for the trumpeted words of the prophets, which can crush the stones like the mallet. We have access now to these earthen vessels in which the greatest treasures are kept. Many kings and prophets, as it is said, wanted to see what you can see now, and they have not seen. But happy is the one who does not see and believes. Here are the vessels that keep the treasure of heavenly kingdom, which is no doubt the knowledge of truth and fame of the Son of God. It resembles, it is said, with a treasure hidden in a field, more exactly hidden in the clouds of sacred writings, treasure that is Christ, our God, living by faith in the minds of the true believers, the rightful and useful charitable work applied to a pure heart, to a good conscience and a sincere faith.”

De la Dieceza de Cenad la cea de Timișoara sau de la Gerhard de Sagredo la Augustin Pacha. Un mileniu de istorie ecleziastică (1030-1919/1930)
Von der Tschanader (Cenad) zur Temeswarer (Timișoara) Diözese oder vom heiligen Gerhard zu Bischof Dr. h.c. Augustin Pacha

Author(s): Claudiu Călin

Im Kontext eines Gesprächs bezüglich des Lebens und der Tätigkeit des heiligen Bischofs und Märtyrers Gerhard, des ersten Oberhirten von Tschanad, bleibt mit Sicherheit auch eine kurze geschichtliche Beschreibung der alten Diözese von Urbs Morisena relevant. Die Entwicklung des alten Bistums wird von seiner Gründung bis zur territoriellen Aufteilung, als Folge des ersten Weltkrieges, verfolgt. Nach 1930, als Resultat der Grenzziehungen von 1919/1920 und des zwischen Rumänien und dem Hl. Stuhl unterschriebenen Konkordats, wird 1930 im Königreich Rumänien das Bistum Temeswar gegründet. Die neue Diözese, die sich auf zwei Drittel des ehemaligen Tschanader Bistumsgebiets erstreckt, hat als erster Oberhirte Bischof dr. h.c. Augustin Pacha. Ähnlich wie der heilige Gerhard, muss auch Augustin Pacha seinen Glauben, in moderne Verfolgungszeiten aber, verteidigen und bekennen.

Contextul istoric al epocii Sfântului Gerard şi luptele pentru putere în cadrul Regatului Medieval Maghiar
The Historical Context of the Time of Saint Gerard of Cenad and the Power Struggles in the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary

Author(s): Călin Timoc

The settlement of the Hungarian horde in the late nineth-century AD Pannonia was made with the consent of the Byzantine Emperor. In the following decades, these nomadic people terrorized the entire Western Europe with their raids. They destroyed the region of the Po River and the Venetian trade was affected on the North Adriatic coast by the horde’s archers. Their defeat at Lechfeld in 955 by the Roman-German havy cavalry of Emperor Otto I stopped the westward march of the Hungarians, forcing them to give up nomadic life and slowly start their process towards Christianization. Both the Holy Roman Emperor and the Papacy would then subsequently support Catholic missions to convert the Hungarian tribal leaders. Benedictines made the greatest effort to bring them to the „true faith.” The transformation into a Catholic Hungarian state was achieved under King Saint Stephen and Gerard Sagredo, a Venetian prelate, who was the advisor to the throne and who established the church organization in the Pannonian medieval kingdom. Because of his reforms and because the high foreign influence of Venice on the Hungarian medieval society after the death of Saint Stephen, Gerard was martyred in Buda in 1047.

Legenda Sancti Gerhardi episcopi și Deliberatio supra hymnum trium puerorum: două izvoare fundamentale pentru istoria Banatului în prima jumătate a secolului al XI-lea.
The Legend of the Sancti Gerhardi episcopi and Deliberatio supra hymnum trium puerorum: Two Fundamental Sources for the History of Banat in the First Half of the Eleventh Century
Author(s): Remus Mihai Feraru

The objective of our study is to interpret the historical information provided by the legend of the Sancti Gerhardi episcopi and Deliberatio supra hymnum trium puerorum. The two works are precious sources for the history of medieval Banat from the first half of the 11th century. In order to reconstruct the historical realities in the territory of Banat as exact as possible, we shall corroborate the information provided by the sources and the archeological discoveries. Legenda Sancti Gerhardi (Legenda maior and Legenda minor) is a plentiful hagiographic piece of writing which provides information related to the economic life, the social structure, the political and ecclesiastical organization of Ahtum’s Duchy. It also presents the activity of Bishop Gerard from Cenad (1030-1046). The work Deliberatio is a small theological and philosophical treatise which depicts the political and religious atmosphere in Hungary since the death of Saint Stephen I (1038) until the death of Bishop Gerard of Cenad (1046). A considerable part of this work is dedicated to the fight against the heretical movements that the bishop had to face soon after the death of King Stephen I (1038). Gerard fought mainly against bogomilism; it is highly probable that this heresy had followers on the territory of Banat.

Cenadul în contextul geografiei istorice. O analiză a evoluției condițiilor de habitat Cenad within the Context of Historical Geography
Author(s): Dorel Micle

An analysis of the evolution of habitat conditions. Human communities are linked by the natural landscape in which they live. Habitat features can be vastly different, and they are influenced by landscapes, climate, hydrographic network, flora and fauna. Choosing an appropriate location for living considered all these natural features as well as economic occupations, trade relationships, and social and religious organisation. The vicinity with the Mureș River, the fertile land, the woods, etc. represented for antique Cenad, Romania, genuine geo-strategic and economic assets. This study aims to reconstruct, based on historical and topographical maps, as well as satellite images, the surrounding countryside of Cenad for a better understanding of the medieval habitat conditions of the ex-fortress of Morisena and its neighbourhoods.

Girardo, în apele sale
Girardo and His Shallows

Author(s): Dusan Baiszki

The Venetian Girardo, the future Roman-Catholic Saint Gerard, found a little Venice in Cenad: huge wetlands in the area bordered by the Tisza, the Mures, and the Aranka rivers. It was the psychical and moral support which might have helped him to defeat the diseases and epidemics which haunted old Cenad. However, the diseases did not spare the 18,000 inhabitants of Cenad between 1801-1895. This is a study of births, disease and mortality in Cenad in the 19th century, based on church registers.

The Saint and the Myth: Saint Gerard of Cenad and “Symphonia Ungarorum” between the Middle Ages and the Twentieth Century
Author(s): Teodora C. Artimon

Pasajul referitor la "Symphonia Ungarorum" și existent atât în Legenda Minor cât și în Legenda Maior a Sfântului Gerard de Cenad, a stârnit o serie de dezbateri academice care încă nu și-au găsit o finalitate comună. Scopul prezentei lucrări nu e o dezlegare și nici o prezentare a acestor dezbateri și a concluziilor acestora. În schimb, intenția acestei comunicări e prezentarea unei paralele între realitatea "Symphoniei Ungarorum" și precepția acesteia astăzi. În mod special, e vorba despre reinterpretarea simfoniei si "reciclarea" acesteia cu ocazia sărbatoririi unui mileniu de la întemeierea statului maghiar. În 3 ianuarie 2000, Opera din Budapesta prezenta debutul „Symphoniei Ungarorum", compusă de Szokolay Sándor și bazată pe legenda Sfântului Gerard. Ce ecouri există între simfonia medievală a lui Gerard și cea moderna a lui Szokolay Sándor? Ce relevanță are originala „Symphonia Ungarorum" și cum e aceasta reinterpretată în contemporaneitatea secolului XX? Cum e privit și înțeles Sfântul Gerard astăzi? Acestea sunt câteva dintre întrebările la care această lucrare va încerca să răspundă.

Re-lectură a scrierii lui Gerard de Cenad din perspectiva interferenţelor culturale
Re-Reading Gerardus of Cenad’s Writings from the Perspective of the Modern Principles of Interculturalism

Author(s): Maria Micle

Re-reading Gerardus of Cenad’s writings from the perspective of modern principles of interculturalism is a paper which uncovers different meanings of the text and a remarkable modernity of the issue of living together in diversity -- a constant feature of history. The plurality of the European space does not constitute a phenomenon of modern society because, instinctively, everybody tends to believe his own cultural heritage superior to that of others. The issue of ethnic groups living together is a regular feature of history, and ethnic groups have always interfered. The concepts of multiculturalism and interculturalism are relatively recent, but their basic practices are ancient. Searching written sources and presenting ancient texts in modern approaches through the principles of interculturalism can revalorise ancient texts and reveal a fresh view on the past, emphasising the contribution of local cultures to the enrichment of the world’s cultural heritage.