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Watershed and River Basin Management

ISBN 978-615-80340-4-3
Edited by János Fehér

The Fecal Has Hit the Fan: Overview of Efforts in the U.S. to Address Bacterial Contamination in Surface Waters
Author(s): Alan. H. Vicory, Jason Heath

Correcting impairments in surface water quality in the U.S due to the presence of bacterial pathogens is a key water quality management challenge. Difficulties associated with costs of correcting sewer overflows, uncertainties in the science and human risk from recreation, rapidly changing surface water conditions (physical and bacteriological), limitations in technology, and contributions from unregulated sources collectively make achievement of water quality goals controversial. Among the activities currently underway are municipal long term sewer correction programs, development of regulatory policies to align water quality goals with achievability and programs of scientific study and review. Efforts by the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) for the Ohio River are illustrative of the difficulties in policy development. Public opposition to a perceived downgrading in water quality requirements, combined with a lack of documentation of extent of recreation use, resulted in adoption of a limited wet weather-based Ohio River bacterial standard in 2006. ORSANCO is committed; however, to continuing efforts to enhance public education and better understand Ohio River recreation use. These initiatives, combined with national level efforts in science, should position ORSANCO to refine and enhance its wet weather bacterial standard.

Water Framework Directive Catchment Planning: A Case Study Apportioning Loads and Assessing Environmental Benefits of Programme of Measures
Author(s): Bob Crabtree, Sarah Kelly, Hannah Green, Graham Squibbs, Gordon Mitchell

Complying with proposed Water Framework Directive (WFD) water quality standards for ‘good ecological status’ in England and Wales potentially requires a range of Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to control point and diffuse sources of pollution. There is an urgent need to define the benefits and costs of a range of potential PoMs. Water quality modelling can be used to understand where the greatest impact in a catchment can be achieved through ‘end of pipe’ and diffuse source reductions. This information can be used to guide cost-effective investment by private water companies and those with responsibilities for agricultural, industrial and urban diffuse inputs. In the UK, river water quality modelling with the Environment Agency SIMCAT model is regarded as the best current approach to support decision making for river water quality management and planning. The paper describes how a SIMCAT model has been used to conduct a trial WFD integrated catchment planning study for the River Ribble catchment in the North West of England. The model has been used to assess over 80 catchment planning scenarios. The results are being used support a national assessment of the cost-effectiveness of proposed PoMs.

Pollution State and Modeling of Organophosphoric Acid Triesters in the Yamato River Basin
Author(s): H. Shimazu

The concentrations of organophosphoric acid triesters (OPEs) in the Yamato River basin were investigated and numerically simulated in this study. The Yamato River is one of the biggest in the Kansai District, Japan. The basin length, area and sewer coverage are 68km, 1070km2, and 70%, respectively. Seven kinds of OPEs were measured at the eight sampling locations of the Yamato River and its tributaries from November to December 2006. All of the OPEs were detected and the ranges of concentrations were from 0.0018 to 5.6μg/L. The detection rates were also high, from 69% to 100%. It was reported that the domestic wastewater and the sewage wastewater were the dominant OPE pollution sources. Using the pollution data of a few kinds of wastewater treatment types in a number of sub-basins, per-capita effluent values on OPEs and water discharge, the base flow rates, and the OPE diminishing rates, a model was developed for predicting OPE concentrations in the Yamato River basin. Then, it was confirmed that the differences between the observed and predicted OPEs were within one order of magnitude in almost all cases.

Sustainable River Basin Management under the European Water Framework Directive: An Effective Protection of Drinking-Water Resources
Author(s): S. Wuijts, H.F.M.W. van Rijswick

In the Netherlands drinking water is produced both from surface water and groundwater. Due to the shortage of space, resources are often found in combination with other activities, such as those pertaining to industry or agriculture, in the same neighbourhood. These combinations impose strong demands on the water management of the river basin and the legal instruments that are at hand. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000) ensures sustainable availability of good-quality groundwater and surface water. Current drinking-water directives are partially addressed in the WFD, along with ‘new’ obligations such as the river basin approach. One of these obligations is to develop suitable measures for meeting the drinking-water standards taken up in the regulations and to reduce the time needed for treatment of drinking water. This study focused on setting up a protocol - elaborated and evaluated at three different abstraction sites (pilots) - to develop these measures. The so-called ‘area dossier’ offers good insight into the factors influencing water quality for all parties involved and makes it possible to develop suitable and effective measures. The general approach taken in this protocol will enable it to be used by other European Member States.

Integrated Modelling for Basinwide Sustainable Management of Water Quality
Author(s): A.G. Capodaglio, G. Tartari, A. Callegari

This paper illustrates a methodological approach used for the implementation of water quality models, with the aim of defining water quality in a lake’s immissary and in the lake itself as a result of all different pollution-generating activities within the basin. A steady-state simulation model (QUAL2E) was adopetd to predict changes in the concentration of in-stream nutrient concentrations in the Lambro River within the Lake Pusiano watershed (Northern Italy). Simulation of local hydrology as a preliminary study was conducted using the HEC-HMS model. In this study, watershed analysis is carried out with the “Soil and Water Assessment Tool” (SWAT) package. This paper describes therefore parts of an integrated hydrologic, catchment and stream nutrient modelling system. The river modelling system is designed to simulate at first, and subsequently to develop sustainable reduction plans of nutrient loads delivered to the lake.

The WETwin project: Enhancing the Role of Wetlands in Integrated Water Resources Management for Twinned River Basins in the EU, Africa and South-America in Support of EU Water Initiatives
Author(s): I. Zsuffa, J. Cools, P. Vlieghe, P. Debels, A. van Griensven, A. van Dam, T. Hein, F. Hattermann, M. Masiyandima, M.P. Cornejo R. de Grunauer, R. Kaggwa, C. Baker

An international project called ‘WETwin’ has been launched in June 2008 within the frame of the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The overall objective of the project is to enhance the role of wetlands in basin-scale integrated water resources management, with the aim of improving the community service functions while conserving good ecological status. Strategies will be identified for:
• utilizing the drinking water supply and sanitation potentials of wetlands for the benefit of people
• living in the basin, while maintaining the ecosystem functions
• adapting wetland management to changing environmental conditions
• integrating wetlands into river basin management
• improving stakeholder participation and capacity building with the aim of supporting sustainable wetland management.
The project will work on 'twinned' case study wetlands from Europe, Africa and South America. Management solutions will be worked out for these wetlands with the aim of supporting the achievement of the above objectives. Knowledge and experiences gained from these case studies will be summarized in general guidelines aiming to support integrated wetland management on global scale. Stakeholder participation, capacity building and dissemination will be essential components of the project.

Planning and Implementation of a Public Participation Process Towards the Development of the Anthemountas River Basin Water Management Plan
Author(s): E. Pavlidou, S. Famellos, M. Makraki, A. Deliyannis

Social stakeholder involvement is of critical importance in the development, review and updating of river basin management plans. In this work, the methodology that was developed and applied in the frame of a project co-financed by the EU LIFE programme is presented. The specific task aimed to promote public participation and stakeholder involvement in the consultation process for the development of the Anthemountas river basin water management plan in northern Greece. The implementation of the public participation process began in early 2006 and was completed in October 2007. The initial process included identification of the thematic areas and the social partners. Active involvement of the social partners took place through their participation in public Fora, as well as a dedicated consultation committee that was assigned the development of the water management plan of the Anthemountas Basin. The technical tools and in particular the six scenarios constituted the main inputs for the formulation of the river basin management plan. The consensus of local society stakeholders on this plan was ratified through the signing of a water management Protocol, drafted during the final stages of the consultation process.

Water Quality Study of the Itaparica Reservoir, São Francisco River, Brazil
Author(s): Gustavo Lira de Melo, Maria do Carmo Sobral, Günter Gunkel

The reservoir of Itaparica is located in the physiographic area called São Francisco sub-medium region, Brazil. It was constructed in 1987 with the priority purpose of energy generation. However, it presents multiple uses as public and industrial supplying, irrigation, aquaculture, cattle, navigation, and tourism with great part of its irrigated perimeter using fertilizes, and irregular occupations on its surrounds, as well as several kinds of effluents coming directly into the reservoir without treatment. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the water quality of the Itaparica reservoir using the monitoring and bibliographical sources, as a support to management improvements and consequently, improvements on the water resources in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco. Water quality degradation was observed along the years, and the reservoir is in eutrophization process, with concentrations of total phosphorus, and phytoplankton out of the standards established by Resolution Conama nº 357/2005. Implementation of control action becomes important like the reduction of sewage effluents inputs and the protection of the permanent preservation areas. An increase on the spatial and temporal frequency sampling data of the water quality becomes necessary, and it should set up new sampling points for a better evaluation of the eutrophization in the reservoir.

The Significance of Soil in Watershed Management
Author(s): Gy. Várallyay

According to forecasts the probability, frequency, duration and intensity of extreme hydrological events and soil moisture situations (flood, waterlogging, overmoistening versus droughts sometimes at the same time, in the same place) will be increasing in the future due to: high (and increasing) spatial and time variability, hardly predictable irregularity of atmospheric precipitation, frequency of heavy (intensive) rainfalls; changing rain:snow ratio and quick snowmelt; macro-, meso- and microrelief; changing land use and cropping pattern; soil characteristics. Under such conditions, as in Hungary, situated in the deepest part of the hydrogeologically practically closed Carpathian Basin – it is an important fact that soil is the largest potential natural water reservoir and a great part of the atmospheric precipitation can be stored in the 0–100 cm layer of the soil. This potential water storage capacity may prevent or reduce the risk of the unfavourable economic/ecological/environmental consequences of climate (especially precipitation) extremes and hydrological events. In many cases, however this potential storage capacity cannot be used efficiently, because:
– infiltration is prevented or limited by full water saturation; frozen topsoil; or a compact, hardly permeable soil layer on or near to the soil surface;
– the infiltrated water is not stored because of low water retention.
The consequences of these cases are increasing surface runoff, evaporation and deep-filtration losses, and increasing hazard of extreme water events. Consequently, all efforts have to be made to help infiltration into the soil and the storage of water within the soil in plant available form. These operations are an unavoidable part of efficient soil moisture control, watershed mangement and environment protection.

Climate Change: Towards an Adaptive Water Management in Slovenia
Author(s): B. Đurović, A. Bizjak, M. Kobold

The changes in climate parameters induce hydrometeorological circumstances, which are very likely to influence current water management regimes in a significant manner. Thus, particularly water balance and water related natural hazards should be thoroughly considered. The possible effects are challenging us to search for a new balance between water availability and demand as well as between natural hazards and socio-economically acceptable risks. The adaptation to extreme water quantity situations is becoming the key water management issue worldwide. This paper gives an overview on climate change related risks in Slovenia. A way towards an adaptive water management is taken by identifying the key issues of the future national adaptation strategy, which should be aimed at building adaptive capacity and reducing sectoral instability. A strategy should be introduced into the existing programmes for the implementation of the EU Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive) through the next planning cycles, taking in consideration the climate change hazard indicators, impact vulnerability factors, risk levels and corresponding adaptation measures.

Determining Environmental Flows for the South Saskatchewan River Basin, Alberta, Canada
Author(s): C. W. Koning, A.G.H. Locke, J.M. Mahoney

The Province of Alberta, Canada recently introduced a Water Management Policy for the South Saskatchewan River Basin that called for determination of the maximum amount of water that can be allocated for irrigation and other uses in the various sub-basins of the South Saskatchewan River. Part of this process required determining the environmental flows (also called instream flow needs) according to the stated objective which was for the full protection of the aquatic environment. Environmental flow determinations were developed to reflect the seasonal pattern and general changes in magnitude, frequency, timing and duration of the natural flow hydrograph both within a year and between years. The intent was to provide flow values based on the ecological need for natural flow variation. To meet these expectations, four ecosystem components were chosen to represent the full extent of the aquatic ecosystem: water quality, fish habitat, riparian vegetation, and channel maintenance. The environmental flow values for each of the individual components were integrated to produce an ecosystem based value. The final flow values were generated for 27 reaches in the SSRB using a weekly time-step in a flow duration curve format (in total, 1404 discreet flow determinations).

Evolution of the Monitoring Water Quality System in Ipojuca River Basin, Brazil
Author(s): M. Sobral, S. Montenegro, G. Gunkel, A. M. L. Barros, J. Aureliano

The monitoring of water quality is one of the environmental management instruments established by the Brazilian Environmental Policy. The objective of the presented article is to show the evolution during the last 20 years of the water quality monitoring system for the Ipojuca river basin, located in Pernambuco´s State. The Ipojuca river is situated in the semiarid and coastal zones of Pernambuco state. The dominant impacts on water quality of the river are domestic sewage input in the upper catchment and sugar cane cultivation and processing in the lower catchment. Long-term monitoring data was used to demonstrate the impact of sewage discharge on the river’s self-purification capacity due the use of stillage (wastewater from cane processing) for fertilization and irrigation (fertigation). Contamination is done by a bio-alcohol factory with annexed sugar cane cultivation. The river’s main ecological problems are water heating, acidification, increased turbidity, oxygen imbalance, and increased coliform bacteria levels. The monitoring system should be improved aiming its effective use as a decision support tool and popular participation in the environmental control practices and water resources management. It is concluded that to overcome the deficiencies, it is necessary to consolidate the participation of society into organizations which take part in the environmental control, as well as the implementation of water agencies and the water price, which will give the basic structure to improve the environmental conditions of the river basin.

Challenges in Geographic Information System and Erosion Model Application in Watershed Management: The Bohol Watershed, Philippines
Author(s): H. J. Bavor, I. C. Genson-Torrefranca

The use of geographic information system and erosion model techniques in land management assessment in the Upper Inabanga Watershed, Philippines is presented. The WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) erosion model was applied to assess erosion at watershed and farm-scale levels. Erosion was predicted using simulated conventional and, alternatively, conservation-oriented agriculture practices, in terms of on -site and off-site effects of the agricultural practices. From instrumented trial hillslopes, sediment yield decreased from 32.8 t·ha-1 to 12.8 t·ha-1 under conventional farming to conservation-oriented practices, respectively. At the watershed level under current land use, this was translated into a decrease in sediment discharge from 11.9 t·ha-1 to 10 t·ha- 1. With land use change in which 58% of the watershed area was allocated to agriculture cultivation, conservation oriented practices decreased sediment discharges from 32.1 t·ha-1 to 3.9 t·ha-1. The WEPP event-by-event output showed the temporal variation of soil loss over the simulation period. The study gives valuable insight to understanding erosion processes at different scales and conservation planning within watersheds. The study concludes that simulation and prediction of erosion under a wide range of scenarios and identification of specific locations of erosion prone areas is valuable for decision-making purposes and for designing conservation strategies.

The Climate Change and Groundwater Regimes in Finland
Author(s): Risto Mäkinen, Mirjam Orvomaa, Noora Veijalainen and Inese Huttunen

The boreal climate zone, in which Finland is situated, causes four seasons: cold winters, cool springs, short summers, and wet autumns. The aquifers are shallow and residence times are from a few months to a few years. The groundwater levels increase or decrease according to season changes. The annual cycle depends on the groundwater regime. The analysis of the years 1974-2007 indicates that the groundwater regimes have slightly moved northwards. The climate change scenarios for temperature and precipitation together with the Watershed Simulation and Forecast-ing System project that this trend will continue. The prognosis is, that winters will shorten, and the summer periods will become longer and warmer. Dryness will increase during summertime while wetness will increase during wintertime. It is possible that in the future there will only be two sea-sons: wet winters and dry summers.